How to Write a Comparative Analysis

How to Write a Comparative Analysis

However, the basis for this report is the standard income statement which contains all the revenue and expense figures for the particular period. After this, do the required calculations to show respective absolute and percentage changes from one period to another. Such a statement presents a company’s revenue from operations profits, expenses, and other key financial figures for different periods in side-by-side columns.

This increase or decrease in absolute amounts are mentioned in Column III of the comparative balance sheet. This analysis helps each of the stakeholders to understand the long-term financial position of a business. Furthermore, there is a provision attached to comparing the financial data showcased by such statements. This relates to making use of the same accounting principles for preparing each of the comparative statements.

  • The top line is the total amount you earned in sales before subtracting any expenses.
  • A percentage of sales presentation is often used to generate comparative financial statements for the income statement — the area of a financial statement dedicated to a company’s revenues and expenses.
  • With the help of such a statement, businesses can identify the problem areas and check whether their current performance aligns with the set objectives.
  • The statements may also reveal unusual spikes in the reported information that can indicate the presence of accounting errors.
  • It helps the business owner to compare the results of business operations over different periods of time.
  • The best way to create a comparative income statement is by using accounting software or a spreadsheet application like MS Excel.

But that is not the case as sales value did not change to a greater extent. This hints towards the fact that incremental sales have been made at a price lower than the sales price. Next, the long-term debt of M/s Kapoor and Co. has increased by 62.5%. This indicates that the company is way too dependent on the external lenders thus leading to a great financial risk for the firm. Secondly, the cash and bank balance of Kapoor and Co. have decreased by 91.5%. It further hints towards the fact that the company might find it challenging to meet its short-term obligations.

Like comparative balance sheet, income statement also has four columns. Third and fourth columns are used to show increase or decrease in figures in absolute amounts and percentages respectively. The comparative statement meaning refers to a financial statement that helps one compare a business’s financial performance in one period against that of another period. It lets one know about a business’s performance results for multiple periods without looking at different financial statements. In other words, it presents financial figures from multiple periods in a single statement. Usually, it consists of financial data of only two periods, as too many columns can be difficult to read for individuals.

For example, managers may compare the ending balance in cash each month over the past two years to determine if the ending cash balance is increasing or declining. If company sales are growing, the manufacturer requires more cash to operate each month, which is reflected in the ending cash balance. A comparative statement is a document that compares a particular financial statement with prior period statements. Such a financial statement is based on the financial data of at least two periods, usually a year. First, such statements are often useless when comparing two businesses’ financial figures because a common base does not exist.

When the comparative statements of two or more years of a firm are presented and compared, it is known as inter-period comparison or intra-firm comparison. However, when the comparative statements of two or more firms are compared over a number of years, then it is known as an inter-firm comparison. It can help you see the variance in how much a line item has changed from one period to another so that you focus on what is causing the increase or decrease in figures in a particular area of the balance sheet. The increase or decrease in sales should be compared with the increase or decrease in cost of goods sold. The profitability will improve if increase in sales is more than the increase in cost of goods sold.

In a paper comparing the effects of acid rain on two forest sites, your choice of sites is less obvious. A paper focusing on similarly aged forest stands in Maine and the Catskills will be set up differently from one comparing a new forest stand in the White Mountains with an old forest in the same region. Predictably, the thesis of such a paper is usually an assertion that A and B are very similar yet not so similar after all. To write a good compare-and-contrast paper, you must take your raw data—the similarities and differences you’ve observed—and make them cohere into a meaningful argument. Preparing such statements can be difficult, especially if a company changes its accounting policies. To find the percentage of revenue, divide each line item by the revenue.

The percentage of revenue tells how much profit you keep from every sales dollar you earn. The results of this comparison may not be useful if an account has been shifted into a different line item at some point during the reporting period. Such a change would cause a downward spike in one line item and an upward spike in another line item. Consequently, such changes in reporting should be as infrequent as possible, or all clustered at the beginning of a fiscal year. Spikes and dips in revenues and expenses are immediately obvious when this format is used, and can then be investigated by management.

Translations of comparative

The study of increase or decrease in retained earnings, various resources and surpluses, etc. will enable the interpreter to see whether the profitability has improved or not. An increase in the balance of Profit and Loss Account and other resources created from profits will mean an increase in profitability to the concern. The decrease in such accounts may mean issue of dividend, issue of bonus shares or deterioration in profitability of the concern.

On the other hand, the current liabilities have decreased by Rs 27,000 only. Now, such a change does not have a negative impact on the liquidity position of M/s Kapoor and Co. This is because current assets have decreased by 33.9% whereas current liabilities have declined by 51.5%. Current liabilities.This helps a financial manager or a business owner to know about the liquidity position of the business. Comparative statements are less reliable when companies undergo huge changes. A big acquisition and move into new end markets can transform businesses, making them different entities from previous reporting periods.

What is a Comparative Balance Sheet?

Such additional machinery leads to an incredible improvement in the production capacity of the company during the year. This expenditure was provided for by the company proprietors and the external lenders. The following is an example of a balance sheet that is presented on a comparative basis. Net profit ratio has almost doubled from 9.82% to 19.32% in just one year period. The Income Statements of Sanyasi Ltd are given for the years 2010 and 2011. Convert them into Common-size Income Statement and interpret the changes.

comparative statement meaning

Apart from comparing income statements of its own business over different time periods, a business owner can compare the operating results of its competitor firms as well. Finally, calculate the percentage change in the assets and liabilities of the current year relative to the previous year. This percentage change in assets and liabilities is mentioned in Column V of the comparative balance sheet. Provides a comparison of expenses to revenues and the proportions of various items on the balance sheet over multiple periods. Provides a comparison of an entity’s financial performance over multiple periods, so that you can determine trends. The statements may also reveal unusual spikes in the reported information that can indicate the presence of accounting errors.

In addition, the statement consists of the financial data from multiple periods in side-by-side columns. You can use a comparative income statement to look at important financial figures. For example, you compare last year’s return on investment to the current year. This tells you if the money you put into your business brings in a greater amount of income. The easiest way to create a comparative income statement is to list the accounts in the left column.

An income statement in comparative form identifies different trends in your business than a balance sheet in comparative form, so using the two together allows for better decision-making. Calculating the dollar and percentage variance between the prior and current period’s balance can help you or investors understand the severity of a change. Investors also use comparative balance sheets to do a comparative analysis of financial ratios.

Resources for Your Growing Business

Our strategy for microsynteny-based comparative mapping was straightforward and simple. Percentages of synthetic comparatives produced by children identified as rule users and those identified as non-rule users for all of the children who completed the production task. They can have genitive subjects only if they can be analyzed either as free relatives clauses or as comparatives, in other words as operator-variable constructions.

comparative statement meaning

After studying various assets and liabilities an opinion should be formed about the financial position of the concern. One cannot say if short-term financial position is good then long-term financial position will also be good or vice-versa. A concluding word about the overall financial position must be given at the end. Accounting PeriodsAccounting Period refers to the period in which all financial transactions are recorded and financial statements are prepared.

These are usually short adverbs and so they normally have comparative and superlative forms with -er and -est. These examples are programmatically compiled from various online sources to illustrate current usage of the word ‘comparative.’ Any opinions expressed in the examples do not represent those of Merriam-Webster or its editors. A comparative Income Statement is not of much use in cases where the company has diversified into new business lines, comparative statement meaning which have drastically impacted Sales and profitability. Hence, the company increased its advertisement cost significantly and reduced the selling price in order to achieve higher sales volume. In such a case, the company had to spend a huge amount on the advertisement and reduce the selling price for market penetration. Furthermore, this analysis is supported by the increase in the advertisement expenses of the company for the year 2018.

What Are Comparative Financial Statements?

For studying current financial position or short -term financial position of a concern, one should see the working capital in both the years. The excess of current assets over current liabilities will give the figures of working capital. The increase in working capital will mean improvement in the current financial position of the business. Comparative Income Statement shows absolute figures, changes in absolute figures, unlimited data in terms of percentages, and an increase in percentages over the different periods. With the help of a Comparative Income Statement format in one snapshot, a company’s performance over different periods can be compared, and changes in expense items and Sales can be easily ascertained. The best way to create a comparative income statement is by using accounting software or a spreadsheet application like MS Excel.

The analyst is able to draw useful conclusions when figures are given in a comparative position. The figures of sales for a quarter, half -year or one year may tell only the present position of sales efforts. When sales figures of previous periods are given along with the figures of current periods then the analyst will be able to study the trends of sales over different periods of time. Similarly, comparative figures will indicate the trend and direction of financial position and operating results.

These statements display percentage change in all income statement line items, making interpretation and analysis of top line and bottom line informative. Individuals such as investors, analysts and business managers use a company’s income statement for comparative purposes. These statements help to check the amount spent in chasing revenues from one period to another with the various movements of cash over time. The main objective of such financial statements is to present financial data in a simple side-by-side format to make it easier for managers, shareholders, banks, creditors, etc., to compare the data without any hassle. Comparative income statements can also reveal if your costs and revenues are consistent.

Both common size and comparative statements can help one convey a business’ accounting information to banks, investors, creditors, etc. Moreover, both statements can help entities compare an organization’s financial performance in different periods. The two have distinct characteristics; one must know the differences to avoid confusion. A comparative income statement presents the results of multiple accounting periods in separate columns. The intent of this format is to allow the reader to compare the results of multiple historical periods, thereby giving a view of how a business is performing over time. The format of the comparative income statement puts together several income statements into a single statement.

Reporting just the latest dollar amounts makes it hard to compare the performances of companies of various sizes. Adding prior period figures, complete with percentage changes, helps to eliminate this problem. A company’s management team can estimate the business’s profitability and monitor the overall health by studying different periods’ crucial financial figures presented in such financial statements. The comparative income statement reveals that there has been increase in net sales of 25% while the cost of goods sold has increased disproportionately by 50% thereby resulting in a decrease of gross profit of 25%. Although the operating expenses have remained constant, there has been decrease in net profit of 29.41%. The company needs to look into the causes of increase in cost of goods sold and control the same.

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